This paper outlines the basic principles of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). It particularly examines the approaches adopted in Canada, Australia and New Zealand and compares the successes of the different approaches. The impact of the different constitutional structures, and the commensurate jurisdictional issues that arise are briefly examined. This paper demonstrates the important premise that a complex multi-sectoral approach is required to have any success with implementing a national strategy for preserving oceans, and the importance of following the principles of sustainable development as outlined in the various international environmental agreements and conventions.
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Matt Heemskerk, "National Efforts at Integrated Coastal Zone Management: The Canadian, Australian and New Zealand Experiences" (2001) 10 Dal J Leg Stud 158.