Dalhousie Law Journal


P. K. Mukherjee


Charting, safekeeping, oceans, waterways, marine navigation, hydrography, cartography.


In the world of shipping and maritime affairs the task of charting the oceans and waterways is one, the indispensability of which cannot be overemphasized. Without nautical charts marine navigation would virtually come to a standstill. The apparent backstage role of chartmakers deserves more attention than is generally accorded them by the beneficiaries of the seas. Chartmaking basically consists of two disciplines, namely, hydrography and cartography. Hydrography is a science dealing with the description of the physical features and conditions of the waters of the earth's surface. Hydrographic surveying is the age-old art of collecting and collating all the data which goes into the preparation of nautical charts and other similar publications, such as Sailing Directions. Cartography deals with the actual construction of charts.