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In Part 1 of this report, we attempt to summarize the long history that forms the context of the need for independent accountability measures to meaningfully address the discrimination identified by the CHRT in Caring Society and prevent similar practices in the future. Drawing from this context, in Part 2, we set out what we identify as 10 key accountability needs of Indigenous children and families that must be addressed in order to provide effective accountability. Finally, in Part 3, we discuss features of effective accountability mechanisms and propose three interconnected mechanisms that we believe address the accountability needs. Any of these three mechanisms, individually, would serve to provide greater protection of the rights of Indigenous children and families from the discrimination found in the Caring Society case by improving government accountability. However, as outlined in this report, none are sufficient, on their own, to address all of the identified accountability needs. Therefore, we reach the conclusion that combining all three mechanisms would be the most effective way of preventing discrimination from continuing or re-emerging in the future.



While this report was informed by interviews and feedback from stakeholders, including the First Nations Child and Caring Society and Indigenous Services Canada, the conclusions and recommendations expressed are those of the authors.


We would like to thank all those who generously gave their time to give interviews for this report as well as those who gave feedback on drafts of the report. Thanks to Linda Reif for generously sharing her expertise with respect to accountability mechanisms. Thanks to the research assistants whose work helped inform the final product: Evan Cribb, Danielle-Vautour Wilmot and Toni Hynes.