Compliance and Enforcement in the Climate Change Regime

Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date



Compliance, Kyoto Protocol, UNFCCC, Climate Change


This chapter tracks the work of the compliance committee under Kyoto Protocol since the operationalization of the Kyoto compliance system in 2006. The basic elements of the compliance system, including its facilitative and enforcement branches, are described. Key issues brought before the committee between 2006 and 2012 are reviewed. In particular, the effectiveness of the more active enforcement branch is assessed through the first 7 issues of implementation brought before the branch. The case against Greece, the first matter considered by the branch, is considered in detailed, followed by an assessment of issues raised in the six subsequent cases. Finally, some opportunities to strengthen the Kyoto compliance system are identified.