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Paris Agreement, Paris Rulebook, Nationally Determined Contributions, NDC Communication, Implementation, and Accounting, NDC Registry, Climate Change


Nationally Determined Contributions play a critical role in the architecture of the Paris Agreement. Parties are required to prepare and communicate their NDCs and to undertake domestic efforts to meet their mitigation commitments, facilitated in some cases by support and finance from other parties. The focus of this article is on key elements of the five-year cycle that deal with the content and process of NDCs, specifically the portion of the Paris Rulebook on the communication of NDCs and the accounting for their implementation. The article concludes that while the basics appear to be in place, there are a number of gaps and uncertainties that may result in implementation challenges.


This is an author's manuscript of an article published in Climate Law (Brill). The published record can be accessed here: