Loss & Damage From Climate Change: From Concept to Remedy?

Document Type

Book Chapter

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Environmental Studies, Climate Change, Environmental Policy, Environmental Law, Environmental Studies, Environmental Change and Pollution, Environmental Issues, Environment and Sustainability Law


During the negotiations in 2015 that led to the adoption of the Paris Agreement, one of the most contentious issues was the introduction of a dedicated provision in Article 8 on what is known as ‘loss and damage’. The adoption of this new article, however, left many questions unanswered. What is the distinction between ‘loss and damage’, and ‘adaptation’? What are the legal implications of the inclusion of loss and damage as an article in a legal treaty? How can financial assistance and compensation best be channelled to victims of climate change loss and damage? What gaps remain in the loss and damage governance system?

The Third Pillar of International Climate Change Policy: On ‘Loss and Damage’ after the Paris Agreement addresses these questions, and numerous others, and explores the present and future of loss and damage in the era of the Paris Agreement. This book provides an up-to-date analysis of ‘loss and damage’ which is often described as the third pillar of international climate change policy. It is based around four main themes: (i) insurance schemes, (ii) key gaps in loss and damage governance, including non-economic loss and damage and slow-onset events, (iii) legal aspects of loss and damage, and (iv) novel approaches to loss and damage.

The chapters in this book were originally published as a special issue of Climate Policy.


This chapter was originally published in the Climate Policy, volume 20, issue 6 (October 2020).