The Convergence of Multiple Models of Motivation for Second Language Learning: Gardner, Pintrich, Kuhl and McCroskey

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Book Chapter

Publication Date



Second Language learning, Gardner's Socio-Educational Model, Integrative Motive, Research Study, Motivation Variables


Gardner's socio-education model of second language acquisition, which revolves around the integrative motive, has generated a great deal of research support. Recently, critics have challenged that the model excludes a number of variables identified as potentially relevant to second language learning. the present study empirically tests for the overlap among 10 concepts from Gardner's model, six concepts from an academic motivation model offered by Kuhl and associates, and three communication-related variables employed by McCroskey and associates. Factor analysis reveals a three-factor solution which accounts for 55% of the variance in the 22 scales employed. This high degree of empirically demonstrable similarity among the concepts from four separate research paradigms indicates the breadth of the Gardner model and the value of testing empirically the theoretical distinctions among specific motivation constructs.