Document Type

Conference Proceeding

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International Climate Policy, Paris Agreement, Hybrid Models, Nationally Determined Contributions, International Review Processes


To succeed, the hybrid model of international climate policy embodied in the Paris Agreement requires countries to deliver their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and to progressively increase collective and individual efforts over time. The effectiveness of this type of regime will require international review processes that provide robust information about countries’ efforts and trajectories and give substantial opportunities for state and non-state actor engagement with this information. The Paris Agreement creates three different review processes, but leaves critical details regarding each to future decisions: It provides for a review of implementation of individual NDCs under an “enhanced transparency framework”, comprising a technical expert review and multilateral consideration (Article 13). It puts in place a global stock take every five years to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose and long-term goals of the Agreement (Article 14), preceded by a mitigation-focused facilitative dialogue in 2018. It establishes a mechanism to facilitate implementation and promote compliance through a committee that is expert-based, non- adversarial and non-punitive. (Article 15). It is essential for Parties to develop effective modalities, procedures and guidelines, as mandated by Decision 1/CP.21, for each of these processes. To this end, this discussion brief highlights essential considerations and potential options for each process.


This discussion brief builds upon the workshop “Reviewing Implementation and Compliance under the Paris Agreement”, held at Arizona State University, 7-8 April 2016. Authors have contributed to this brief in their personal capacities; views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of the institutions with which the authors are affiliated. The authors would like to thank Christina Voigt and Jake Werksman for comments on an earlier draft.