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Climate Change, Adaptation, Nature-based Solutions, Mangroves, Coral Reefs, Integration, Law and Policy, Climate Change, Coral Reefs, Mangroves


There are several nature-based adaptation options available to coastal nations. In this paper, we offer a brief overview of these options and then focus on mangroves to consider how laws and policies can support nature-based solutions and thereby contribute to more effective overall adaptation efforts. We first outline the concept of adaptation and its variants, thereby setting the context for this study. We then briefly explore the science relating to nature-based adaptation. We analyze the international legal regime in place to protect mangrove ecosystems. Finally, we discuss the merits, the challenges, and strategies developed to surmount some of the challenges that coastal countries can face while implementing nature-based adaptation options by utilizing Bangladesh’s experience on mangrove conservation as a case study. Ultimately, we conclude that it may be necessary to implement both hard and nature-based adaptation options and that an effective law and policy framework will be critical. It will also be important to look beyond physical coastal protection to augment coastal livelihoods and build resilient coastal communities with greater adaptive capacities


This is a pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: Meinhard Doelle & George Tony Puthecherril, "Nature-Based Solutions to Sea Level Rise and Other Climate Change Impacts on : A Law and Policy Perspective" (2021) Special Issue Nordic J Botany 1, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.