academic freedom, rights, Canada, classroom, university, case law, human rights, legislation
The principle of academic freedom accords a wide latitude to professorial speech in the classroom setting. This article argues that there are principles and sources of law which are imported into the professorial employment contract and which place limits on the exercise of that speech. These include contractual obligations of competence and non-discriminatory behaviour, as well as terms drawn from human rights legislation. Drawing on an examination of case law and labour arbitral awards, the author outlines ways in which the right of academic free speech might be balanced against these limiting considerations.
Judith Macfarlane, "Beyond the Right to Offend: Academic Freedom, Rights and Responsibilities in the Canadian University Classroom" (1997) 20:1 Dal LJ 78.