protectionist policy, international shipping, liberal economic principles, flag preference, flag discrimination, state intervention, subsidies, international trade
It is Dr. Ademuni-Odeke's view that international shipping is "an industry in decline" and "in a mess" principally because of the abuse of national policies designed to give preference to national fleets or protect national fleets from international competition. The desire of nontraditional maritime nations to establish national merchant marines utilizing preference or protectionist policies has led to a confrontation with traditional maritime nations who espouse liberal economic principles, yet practice the same protectionist policies. The United States is the classic example of a maritime state which utilizes the full array of protectionist policies (flag preference, flag discrimination, state intervention, and subsidies), yet shouts the loudest when states adopt similar policies or take retaliatory action arguing that open competition should prevail.
Ted Lynn McDorman, "Protectionism and the Future of International Shipping" (1956) 10:1 Dal LJ 225.