United States, Canada, electricity, power generation, wind, water, solar, biomass, cogeneration, energy, economic barriers, institutional barriers, utility
Small power producers' are in the vanguard of the movement towards the increased use of "alternative" modes of generating electricity. Wind, water, solar, biomass, and cogeneration (which creates useful heat and electricity in one process) power sources promise increased efficiency, reduced environmental impacts and increased energy self-sufficiency. This paper undertakes to examine the interactions between small power producers and the established utility sector in North America. In particular, it examines the economic and institutional barriers faced by small producers attempting to gain access to utility-controlled electricity markets.
J O. Krowina, "American and Canadian Responses to the Challenge of Small Power Production" (1992) 15:2 Dal LJ 523.