Australia, Canada, offshore, fishing, pollution, petroleum, ecosystems, Oceans Act, sustainability, marine
Challenges in ocean and coastal management are facing all coastal states of the world. including Australia and Canada. Overharvesting of fish stocks, increasing pressure from land-based sources of pollution, expanding offshore petroleum developments, and rising risks of ship-sourced pollution in fragile marine ecosystems have caused both countries to begin a process of reassessment and rethinking. In January 1997 Canada adopted a new Oceans Act, which called for the development of a National Oceans Management Strategy based on principles of sustainable development, precaution and integration, and a new national marine protected areas network. In December 1998, Australia released a National Oceans Policy which, in addition to highlighting oceans issues in need of attention, also proposed a national strategy for addressing these urgent questions.
Donald R. Rothwell and David VanderZwaag, "Australian and Canadian Perspectives on Offshore Management" (2003) 26:1 Dal LJ 1.