Dalhousie Law Journal


constitutionalism, citizen, state, democracy, counterconstitutionalism, bills of rights, civil law, common law


Democratic constitutionalism has often erected a high barrierseparating the citizen from the state. This is paradoxical because the very promise of constitutionalism is to produce precisely the opposite result: to bind the citizen to the state, and to create and cultivate a constitutional culture that is anchored in participatory democracy. The author has a name for this paradoxical state of affairs: counterconstitutionalism. In this article, the author introduces and illustrates the conceptof counterconstitutionalism with reference to billsof rights in constitutional states representing civil and common law traditions on four continents.